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¡Hola amigos!

Pregunta a cualquier estudiante de inglés ¿qué les parece el tema de gramática que da más miedo, y sin duda te van a contestar que es el condicional.

animaldreams

Si ganara la lotería, compraría…

Pero ¡no es cierto! Sigue estos pasos sencillos y aprenderás a elegir la forma correcta siempre.

Para ir directamente al grano, hay 4 construcciones diferentes de la condicional, y la diferencia esencial entre ellas se resume por “¿qué es la probabilidad que pase la cláusula del resultado, y en qué tiempo estamos hablando? También es posible mezclar las construcciones en ele caso de que la condición y el resultado sean en tiempos diferentes, como vamos a ver dentro de nada…

Importante: recuerda que las cláusulas de condición (if…) y de resultado (then…) pueden aparecer en cualquier orden.

Conditional Construcción Uso
Zero Conditional If/when present tense then present tense

General truths and rules

If you heat ice then it melts.

Everything gets wet when it rains.

First Conditional If present tense then future tense (will/going to/can/must) Future events which are very likely/certain

If I see him I will tell him the news.  

If you finish your homework, you can go out tonight!  

Second Conditional If past simple then (subject) would + infinitive (without “to”) Hypothetical/imaginary scenarios in the present or future: the condition is unlikely or untrue

I would be so happy if we were on a beach right now! (We are not on a beach, and therefore I am not so happy)  

If I went to China again, I would visit the south. (I don’t know if I will go back to China)  

Note: If I were to go to china again is also correct.

Common construction: If I were you, I would… 

Third Conditional If past perfect then (subject) would have + past participle Imaginary events in the past: the result is now impossible. It is often, therefore, used to express regret.  

If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car. (I didn’t win, and didn’t buy the car)  

If I had realised it was going to rain then I’d have brought an umbrella. (I didn’t realise and didn’t bring an umbrella – and now regret it!)  

Mixed Conditionals 1) If past perfect then present/future

2) If past simple then (subject) would have + past participle

 

3) If past continuous then (subject) would + infinitive (without “to”)

 

4) If past continuous then (subject) would have + past participle

 

Conditions in the past with hypothetical results in the present, e.g. If I had eaten that I would be ill! (but I didn’t eat it, and I’m OK.)  

Present conditions with hypothetical results in the past, e.g. If I spoke German I would have translated for you (but I don’t speak German, so I didn’t translate.)

 

Future conditions with hypothetical results in the present, e.g. If I was going on holiday tomorrow I would be excited. (But I’m not going on holiday, and am not excited.)

 

Future conditions with hypothetical results in the past, e.g. If I was going on holiday tomorrow then I would have bought suncream. (But I am not going on holiday, so I did not buy suncream.)

 

 

Recuerda: las condiciones y resultados ¿son en el pasado, presente o futuro? El resultado ¿es posible, imposible o cierto?

 

Ahora ¡a practicar los tiempos condicionales!

1: Rellena los huecos con verbos en el tiempo adecuado

 

If I ___ (to know) you were coming, I would ____ (to clean) the house! (I didn't know, and didn't clean)
If I had known you were coming, I would have cleaned the house.

If he ___ (to speak) better English, he would ____ (to be able to) ask for directions. (He doesn't speak English well enough and can't ask)
If he spoke better English, he would be able to ask for directions.
My dog ___ (to like) it when people ____ (to talk to) him.
My dog likes it when people talk to him.
If I ___ (not have) a meeting tomorrow I would____ (to agree) to go on holiday with you. (I have got a meeting, and I didn't accept the offer of going on holiday)
If I didn’t have a meeting tomorrow I would have agreed to go on holiday with you.
If I ___ (to be) king then I would ___ (to live) in a castle.
If I was/were king, I would live in a castle.

 

2: Cambia las siguientes frases en el primer, segundo y tercer condicional:

 

If I see my boss in the street, I don't speak to him.
1: If I see my boss in the street, I won’t talk to him. 2: If I saw my boss in the street, I wouldn’t talk to him. 3: If I had seen my boss in the street, I wouldn’t have talked to him.
If the water is warm, we go swimming.
1: If the water is warm, we will go swimming. 2: If the water was warm, we would go swimming. 3: If the water had been warm, we would have gone swimming.
When we go to New York we watch basketball.
1: If we go to New York, we will watch basketball. 2: If we went to New York, we would watch basketball. 3: If we had gone to New York, we would have watched basketball.
If he wants chocolate, I give it to him.
1: If he wants chocolate, I will give it to him. 2: If he wanted chocolate, I would give it to him. 3: If he had wanted chocolate, I would have given it to him.
I am happy when it's sunny.
1: If it is sunny, I will be happy. 2: If it was sunny, I would be happy. 3: If it had been sunny, I would have been happy.

 

 

¡¿Ya ves?! ¡No hay nada aquí de que tener miedo! ¡Buen trabajo!

¡Hasta luego!

mustache-glasses-and-a-hat_127845509

Mr. B

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